Global Education Resources
Mozambique: Poverty strategy impact evaluation (RAI)
Mozambique’s government and donors are now evaluating the impact of the poverty reduction strategy of the past four years, PARPA II (Plano de Acção para a Redução da Pobreza Absoluta, 2006-2009).
The 11 studies are inputs to the Impact Evaluation Report (Relatório de Avaliação do Impacto, RAI) of PARPA II, and were circulated in late 2009 and early 2010, and are now posted on the following website: http://www.open.ac.uk/technology/mozambique/p7_1.shtml
Very brief conclusions include:
- Rural income trends (in English rather than Portuguese). “PARPA II failed to enhance farmers’ income, and thus poverty incidence in rural Mozambique may have remained fairly constant over the last six years. … reducing rural poverty in the short-run may require more investments in the agricultural sectors.”
- Agricultural performance (in English). “PARPA II failed to increase agricultural production and productivity and thus reduce poverty.”
- Nutrition (Nutrição). Chronic malnutrition (low height for age) fell from 48% of children under 5 in 2003 to 44% in 2008, but remains “very high” by WHO standards. Malnutrition is worse in northern provinces.
- Child Poverty - deprivations-based approach (in English). There have been large reductions in the proportion of children experiencing severe health and education deprivations. Water, sanitation and information deprivation remains high. “Children from wealthier families tend not to experience deprivations as frequently as children from poorer families, indicating that the PARPA’s focus of increasing incomes needs to be continued.”
- Spending (Despesas). Real education spending rose 68% between 2004 and 2008. Real health spending is impossible to calculate because a “substantial” part of donor money is “off budget”. Defence and security spending is 4.3% of the budget and declining.
- Gender. The PARPA II goal for the Gender Development Index for 2009 was actually reached in 2008.
- Access to Justice (Acesso à Justice). Access to justice in Mozambique did not improve between 2005 and 2009. Details were had to establish because consultants were unable to talk to key people and much information was not made available.
- Combat Corruption (Combate à Corrupção). Some improvements and progress, but huge weaknesses remain.
- Decentralisation of Spending (Descentralização dos Fundos). Decentralisation of actual spending has not yet taken place, but there has been a significant increase in the role of the districts and especially District Consultative Councils in the planning process.
- Tax System in Mozambique (in English). Revenue has gone from 14.0% of GDP in 2005 to 16.4% in 2008 and could be pushed to 18.5%. Tax systems follows international best practice. The tax system is “reasonably progressive” and the poor bear very little of the tax burden. There are concerns about arbitrary and punitive enforcement practices by tax officials.
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